A Guided Tour of China.

Face-changing, or “bian lian” in Chinese, is an important subgenre of Chinese Sichuan opera. It is an ancient style of performance, dating back more than a thousand years. Its techniques have traditionally been highly secretive and passed down within families, from father to son, though in the modern day women have begun to perform bian lian.

It’s dangerous to reduce China to being just one thing – it is both ancient and modern, traditional and innovative. With a continuous history dating back 2,000 years, it is one of the most ancient nations on Earth today – and it is definitely complex.

For discussion: What makes a leader “great?”

The First Emperor

Qin Shi Huang (260–210 BC) was the King of the state of Qin (r. 246–221 BC) who conquered all other Warring States and united China in 221 BC. Rather than maintain the title of king borne by the earlier Shang and Zhou rulers, he ruled as the First Emperor of the Qin dynasty from 220 to 210 BC. The title emperor (huangdi) would continue to be borne by Chinese rulers for the next two millennia.

Qin Shi Huang enacted major economic and political reforms aimed at the standardization of the diverse practices of the earlier Chinese states. This process also led to the banning and burning of many books and the execution of recalcitrant scholars. His public works projects included the unification of diverse state walls into a single Great Wall of China and a massive new national road system, as well as the city-sized mausoleum guarded by the life-sized Terracotta Army. He ruled until his death in 210 BC after a futile search for an elixir of immortality.

Qin Shi Huang
Qin Shi Huang

The Terracotta Army

The Terracotta Army or the “Terracotta Warriors and Horses” is a collection of terracotta sculptures depicting the armies of Qin Shi Huang, the first Emperor of China. It is a form of funerary art buried with the emperor in 210–209 BCE and whose purpose was to protect the emperor in his afterlife.  It can also be regarded as a form of power projection – the means by which a government displays its authority, wealth, and overall strength, often sending a message to others about its priorities, goals, and values.

Each warrior was handcrafted – not from a mold – and displays subtle differences. They look like individual soldiers. (Xian, China, 2015.)

The figures, dating from approximately the late third century BCE, were rediscovered in 1974 by local farmers in Lintong District, Xi’an, Shaanxi province. The figures vary in height according to their roles, with the tallest being the generals. The figures include warriors, chariots and horses.

Estimates from 2007 were that the three pits containing the Terracotta Army held more than 8,000 soldiers, 130 chariots with 520 horses and 150 cavalry horses, the majority of which remained buried in the pits nearby Qin Shi Huang’s mausoleum. Other terracotta non-military figures were found in other pits, including officials, acrobats, strongmen and musicians.

The Mausoleum

In addition to the warriors, an entire necropolis built for the emperor was found surrounding the first emperor’s tomb mound. The earthen tomb mound is located at the foot of Mount Li and built in a pyramidal shape with Qin Shi Huang’s necropolis complex constructed as a microcosm of his imperial palace or compound.

According to the writings of historian Sima Qian (145–90 BCE), work on the mausoleum began in 246 BCE soon after Emperor Qin (then aged 13) ascended the throne. The project eventually involved 700,000 workers.

Construction

The terracotta army figures were manufactured in workshops by government laborers and local craftsmen using local materials. Heads, arms, legs, and torsos were created separately and then assembled.  Eight face molds were most likely used, with clay added after assembly to provide individual facial features. It is believed that the warriors’ legs were made in much the same way that terracotta drainage pipes were manufactured at the time. This would classify the process as assembly line production, with specific parts manufactured and assembled after being fired, as opposed to crafting one solid piece and subsequently firing it.

In those times of tight imperial control, each workshop was required to inscribe its name on items produced to ensure quality control. This has aided modern historians in verifying which workshops were commandeered to make tiles and other mundane items for the terracotta army. Upon completion, the terracotta figures were placed in the pits in precise military formation according to rank and duty.

The terracotta figures are life-sized. They vary in height, uniform, and hairstyle in accordance with rank. Most originally held real weapons such as spears, swords, or crossbows. Originally, the figures were also painted with bright pigments, variously colored pink, red, green, blue, black, brown, white and lilac.  The colored lacquer finish, individual facial features, and weapons used in producing these figures increased the figures’ realism. Most of the original weapons were looted shortly after the creation of the army, or have rotted away, while the color coating flaked off or greatly faded.

(Click to expand)

The Forbidden City

Qin Shi Huang never lived in the Forbidden City – his capital was in Xian, hundreds of miles south of Beijing. But for hundreds of years, the Forbidden City was the palace of the Chinese Emperor.

For Discussion: How and why do governments regulate the flow of people and information?

The Great Wall

The Great Wall of China, near Beijing.
The Great Wall of China at its most iconic and impressive. (Badaling, China, 2015.)

An Epic National Project

The history of the Great Wall of China began when fortifications built by various states during the Spring and Autumn (771–476 BC) and Warring States periods (475–221 BC) were connected by the first emperor of China, Qin Shi Huang, to protect his newly founded Qin dynasty (221–206 BC) against incursions by nomads from Inner Asia. The walls were built of rammed earth, constructed using forced labor, and by 212 BC ran from Gansu to the coast of southern Manchuria.

Later dynasties adopted different policies towards northern frontier defense. The Han (202 BC – 220 AD), the Northern Qi (550–574), the Sui (589–618), and particularly the Ming (1369–1644) were among those that rebuilt, re-manned, and expanded the Walls, although they rarely followed Qin’s routes. The Han extended the fortifications furthest to the west, the Qi built about 990 miles of new walls, while the Sui mobilized over a million men in their wall-building efforts. Conversely, the Tang (618–907), the Song (960–1279), the Yuan (1271–1368), and the Qing (1644–1911) mostly did not build frontier walls, instead opting for other solutions to the Inner Asian threat like military campaigning and diplomacy.

The Great Wall stretches from Dandong in the east, to Lop Lake in the west, along an arc that roughly delineates the southern edge of Inner Mongolia. A comprehensive archaeological survey, using advanced technologies, has concluded that the Ming walls measure 5,500 miles. This is made up of 3,889 miles sections of actual wall, 223 miles of trenches and 1,387 miles of natural defensive barriers such as hills and rivers. Another archaeological survey found that the entire wall with all of its branches measure out to be 13,171 miles.

Although a useful deterrent against raids, at several points throughout its history the Great Wall failed to stop enemies, including in the Yuan – lead by Kublai Khan – in 1271 and in 1644 when the Manchu Qing marched through the gates of Shanhai Pass and replaced the most ardent of the wall-building dynasties, the Ming, as rulers of China.

The Great Wall of China visible today largely dates from the Ming dynasty, as they rebuilt much of the wall in stone and brick, often extending its line through challenging terrain. Some sections remain in relatively good condition or have been renovated, while others have been damaged or destroyed for ideological reasons, deconstructed for their building materials, or lost due to the ravages of time. Long an object of fascination for foreigners, the wall is now a revered national symbol and a popular tourist destination.

Other purposes of the Great Wall have included border controls, allowing the imposition of duties on goods transported along the Silk Road, regulation or encouragement of trade and the control of immigration and emigration. Furthermore, the defensive characteristics of the Great Wall were enhanced by the construction of watch towers, troop barracks, garrison stations, signaling capabilities through the means of smoke or fire, and the fact that the path of the Great Wall also served as a transportation corridor.

Watch towers and garrisons such as these were strategically positioned so that they could communicate with the next station along the wall through smoke signals, flags, or drums. (Badaling, China, 2015.)

Characteristics

Before the use of bricks, the Great Wall was mainly built from rammed earth, stones, and wood. During the Ming, however, bricks were heavily used in many areas of the wall, as were materials such as tiles, lime, and stone. The size and weight of the bricks made them easier to work with than earth and stone, so construction quickened. Additionally, bricks could bear more weight and endure better than rammed earth. Stone can hold under its own weight better than brick, but is more difficult to use. Consequently, stones cut in rectangular shapes were used for the foundation, inner and outer brims, and gateways of the wall.

Battlements line the uppermost portion of the vast majority of the wall, with defensive gaps a little over 30 cm (12 in) tall, and about 23 cm (9.1 in) wide. From the parapets, guards could survey the surrounding land. Communication between the army units along the length of the Great Wall, including the ability to call reinforcements and warn garrisons of enemy movements, was of high importance. Signal towers were built upon hill tops or other high points along the wall for their visibility. Wooden gates could be used as a trap against those going through. Barracks, stables, and armories were built near the wall’s inner surface.

The wall stretches along the crest of the mountains – a strategic decision, meaning that any potential attackers would have to dismount and attack while climbing up hill – literally as far as the eye can see. (Badaling, China, 2015.)

Condition

While some portions north of Beijing and near tourist centers have been preserved and even extensively renovated, in many locations the Wall is in disrepair. Those parts might serve as a village playground or a source of stones to rebuild houses and roads. Sections of the Wall are also prone to graffiti and vandalism, while inscribed bricks were pilfered and sold on the market for up to 50 renminbi. Parts have been destroyed because the Wall is in the way of construction. A 2012 report by the State Administration of Cultural Heritage states that 22% of the Ming Great Wall has disappeared, while 1,219 miles of wall have vanished.More than 37 mile of the wall in Gansu province may disappear in the next 20 years, due to erosion from sandstorms.

In its original construction, this section of the wall was narrower than the more impressive section at Badaling.  In addition, many of its bricks have disappeared over the centuries, leaving the modern explorer little choice but to pass on the dry clay along the wall. (Jinshanling, China, 2010.)

The Great Firewall

Modern China is a one party state – a country ruled by one authoritarian Communist Party that carefully limits dissent, protest, and alternative points of view.  In fact, the Chinese government has a tradition of keeping its watchful eye on all media. Since the rapid growth of the World Wide Web in the 1990s it has constantly invented new ways of censorship to control the world’s most democratic medium, the Internet, as well. Not everything on the Internet can be accessed from within China.  The sophisticated tools used by the government to block websites that might embarrass or weaken the party are referred to as the Great Firewall of China.

It is estimated that some 30,000 Chinese civil servants are monitoring Internet traffic and blocking content that is deemed undesirable. Typing in sensitive keywords such as “democracy”, “Dalai Lama” or “Tiananmen 1989” in a search engine results in an error message. Repeated attempts by a user to search for such a sensitive topic can result in temporary disconnection of internet service.  Websites of a sensitive nature are blocked. Internet service providers also (self) censor, as do individuals: many people do not express their real thoughts because they know these will be censored anyway.

Sites Blocked in China

Chinese Equivalents to American Web Sites. Most of these familiar American sites and apps are blocked by the Great Firewall.
Chinese Equivalents to American Web Sites. Most of these familiar American sites and apps are blocked by the Great Firewall.

For Discussion: In what ways is the Great Firewall similar in function to the Great Wall?  In your opinion, do you think this strategy will work in the long term?

Huashan is the western mountain of the Five Great Mountains of China and has a long history of religious significance. Since as early as the 2nd century BC, Daoists have believed that the god of the underworld lives inside the mountain. Pilgrims have been coming here since that time in search of blessings, immortality, and plants used in traditional Chinese medicine. The route up the mountain has been called one of the most dangerous hikes in the world.
What is striking about this map, which hangs in classrooms all over China?

Store

Life Outside the Lines Paperworks is my family’s line of bespoke notebooks featuring photographs from our many travels around the world – many of which can also be seen on here at Openendedsocialstudies! Many of the lessons on this site began as scribbles in journals just like these!

Available designs include:

This site is and always will be free. But any purchase made from this page helps to keep the servers humming.

Call for Contributors -An Open Ended World History

Any educators out there interesting in contributing to an open source world history text? This would be posted on Openendedsocialstudies.org and made available for free for anyone – schools, teachers, students – struggling with a lack of quality digital resources during these distanced, virtual times.

Ancient World History: An Open Ended History is a free online history textbook adapted and expanded upon from open sources. It is an attempt to develop a middle school world history course that is truly expansive – a true world history, in other words. While it examines historical events and figures, its approach is cultural and thematic.  The text does not aim to be strict chronology of the world – rather, it is a primer for the student who is not a specialist in history.  A primer for being a semi-informed citizen of the world. As such, it features many “digressions” into societies and cultures that don’t always make the cut in conventional textbooks. It is also a work in progress, especially over the 2020-2021 school year.  Please use and share freely – to supplement or replace what you have at hand. 
If you would like to contribute chapters to the ongoing project, please click here.

Chapters will include, but are not limited to:

  • Human Origins
  • Ancient India
  • Ancient Mesopotamia
  • Ancient China
  • Ancient Egypt
  • Sub-Saharan African Kingdoms of the Ancient World
  • Ancient Americas
  • Aboriginal Oceania
  • Comparative World Religions
  • Art of the Ancient World

If one of these topics interests you, drop me a line and let’s hash it out!

 

A History of Criminalized Blackness in the United States (Free Lessons for Middle or High School Classrooms)

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Sign seen at a protest in Washington, DC, 2020.

An injustice against one of us is an injustice against all of us.

Black lives matter.

But here’s a sobering thought – at various early points in the history of our nation, certain people decided very consciously that they absolutely should not. And many of our modern institutions – from the police to the courts to the schools – were built on this cracked foundation.

The historical decisions that have shaped our moment are often invisible to us – like water to fish, we swim in the choices our ancestors have made.

But we when we realize that this is the case – that our reality is not set, but a sum total of historical choices – we become responsible for our own actions.

And then, we are truly free.

Here are a selection of free history lessons from our archives – suitable for middle or high school classrooms – that shed a light on our current moment. If you aren’t teaching lessons like these in your social studies classes, ask yourself – why not?

  • The Evolution of the Virginia Laws of Servitude and Slavery (1643-1691) – Read along as Virginia colonial officials criminalize blackness in real time. (primary source analysis with guided questions)
  • Comparing Slavery and Factory Life – Apologists for slavery often argued that, in their day at least, their system of slavery was better than free market capitalism.  Let’s put that to the test…  (primary source analysis with guided questions)
  • Were the Freedmen Really Free? – After the Civil War, Southerners sought to reconstruct slavery in everything but name. We are the direct inheritors of this system, which was only partly deconstructed in the 1950s and 60s. (primary source analysis with guided questions)
  • Social Reform Movements – Who Should Be the New Face of the $20 Bill? – Progress has always been earned, never granted. Give students the change to reimagine our national pantheon to include the social reformers and progressives who are often more responsible than any president or general for the way of life we cherish today. (research activity)

Two relevant chapters from our totally free, open source textbook The United States: An Open-Ended History:

  1. The Origins of Servitude and Slavery in Colonial America
  2. Gettysburg to Appomattox and Beyond: A New Birth of Freedom

Do you have other relevant lessons?  Share them – I would be honored to host them for free so that they can reach a wider audience!  Reach out to me here.

Twenty Days of Home School Social Studies Curriculum (for Middle or High School)

Well, hello there.

Like most of you, I’ve suddenly found myself teaching online social studies classes. Good thing there’s a whole library of free lessons at Openendedsocialstudies.org, just ready and waiting to support your middle and high school world and US history needs. Please browse and share widely in your social circles.

Here’s a look at some lessons my own home-bound students will see in the twilight days of this school year, preempted so abruptly by our national quarantine.  We’re trying to keep it light, airy, and most of all relevant.

Most to the point, we’re trying to teach these kids something about how to be a good, well-rounded person.  Wasn’t that why you got into this business in the first place?

So, get your kids away from the computer screen as much as possible – that is where they’re going to be for math and ELA.

Everything below is written to apply to the town where I teach, but can easily be adapted to your hometown.

Good luck and be good to each other.

Tom,
Founder, Openendsocialstudies.org


Day 1 – Map Your World

Make a hand drawn map of your home and your yard (if you have one.) Use a measuring tape (or improvise one if you don’t have a measuring tape.)

Your map should be to scale – 1 inch equals 5 feet. Include and label all rooms, windows, doors, and major trees and landscaping. Also include a compass rose and a key, if necessary.
Scan/take a photo of your map.

Day 2 – Plant Life

Pick a tree or plant in your yard. If you’re in an apartment, that’s ok – pick a plant/tree around your building.

Figure out what it is and write a brief report (in your own words, approximately one paragraph). Address questions about: the conditions under which it thrives, its relationship to humans (do we use it or its fruit or leaves for anything, or is it just for decoration), whether it is native to our state, whether your family planted it or it was growing there when you moved in.

You’ve got to be a detective for this one – describe the plant in Google image search, ask an adult who might know what it is, or download a leaf identification app on your phone (there are lots of free ones).

Day 3 – Ask an Adult

Ask an adult to tell you about the neighborhood they lived in when they were your age. Think of at least two related follow up questions. Document the answers in interview format – like this:

Student: Mr. Kenning, what am I supposed to do again?

Mr. Kenning: Interview an adult?

Student: Wait, what?

Mr. Kenning: Ask an adult some questions about the neighborhood they lived in when they were your age!

Student: That’s all?

Mr. Kenning: That’s all!

Day 4 – Read This

Read the following quote and respond to it in a five to eight sentence paragraph:
“Adults, in their dealing with children, are insane, and children know it too. Adults lay down rules they would not think of following, speak truths they do not believe. And yet they expect children to obey the rules, believe the truths, and admire and respect their parents for this nonsense. Children must be very wise and secret to tolerate adults at all. And the greatest nonsense of all that adults expect children to believe is that people learn by experience. No greater lie was ever revered. And its falseness is immediately discerned by children since their parents obviously have not learned anything by experience. Far from learning, adults simply become set in a maze of prejudices and dreams and sets of rules whose origins they do not know and would not dare inspect for fear the whole structure might topple over on them. I think children instinctively know this. Intelligent children learn to conceal their knowledge and keep free of this howling mania.”
― John Steinbeck, The Log from the Sea of Cortez

Day 5 – Dig a Hole

1.Find an out of the way space. Dig a hole at around a foot in depth. To provide a sense of scale, take a picture of your hole with a ruler or some other object in it.
2. Answer the following survey on your own sheet of paper:
Name:
Age:
Grade:
Teacher Who Made Me Do This and Their Email Address:
Best Friends:
Favorite Food:
Favorite Music:
What’s Going on in the World Right Now:
Advice to My Future Self:
3. Place you answers in a carefully sealed Ziploc bag, along with anything else you might want to bury in your time capsule.
4. Throw it in the hole, cover the hole, and dig it all up on April 1st in the year 2025 (or, before you move from your current house – whichever comes first).  Write me a note when you do, and let me know how you’re doing!
Try to go easy on the grass – if you must dig through grass, you can usually cut a piece by getting your shovel up underneath it and levering it up.  You can then replace it when you are done by dropping it back into place.  If you are totally not allowed to dig, place this under a big rock, a paving stone, or somewhere else hidden.

Day 6 – Estimate your Impact

Use this tool – https://ei.lehigh.edu/learners/cc/carboncalc.html – to estimate your carbon footprint. Answer each in a short paragraph, in your own words:
  1. Summarize the “Analysis” tab – what are your biggest impacts?
  2. Were there any sources of carbon that you hadn’t considered before taking this survey?
  3. Is there anything you could reasonably do to lessen your impact?

Day 7 – Eat a Piece of Fruit

Find a piece of fruit in your house. If you don’t have any, find something fruit flavored. Write a brief report on that piece of fruit, including information about its history and where it is cultivated.

Day 8 – Public Records

Look up your home’s tax/historic information. If you live in Pinellas County, you can find it here: https://www.pcpao.org/searchbyAddress.php
Answer the following questions:
1. In what year was your home built?
2. What is the “Land Size” of your property?
3. How many sales are recorded for your home/when were they?
4. How has the value of your home changed over time?

Day 9 – Ask an Adult

Ask your adult to show you some photographs of his or her self when they were your age. Ask them three questions inspired by the photo. Record/document the answers in interview format.

Day 10 – Smoke Detectors

Find all the smoke detectors in your home. Get up on a chair and press the test button.  They should make a loud noise.  If they don’t, you need new batteries.  You’re welcome. Send a photo of yourself up on the chair.

Day 11 – Record a Podcast

Using your phone or computer, record a short podcast (minimum two minutes) – on the theme “What is my life like while I’m stuck at home because of the Coronavirus?”

Day 12 – Make a Meal

Make or help to make breakfast, lunch, or dinner today for the members of your family. Submit a selfie of you in the kitchen/doing the work.

Day 13 – Native America

What Native American group occupied the land where you live now?  Figure it out, give me a paragraph about them, and tell where I could can go to see some of their artifacts or the ruins of their towns.

Day 14 – Your Public Purpose

Read this article about the Californios Verdes – https://openendedsocialstudies.org/2019/04/19/californios-verdes-and-your-public-purpose-project/. The assignment at the end asks you to create a year long project. You don’t actually have to do this assignment – but if you DID have to do it, what kind of project would you take on?  Describe it and why it is important to you in a five to eight sentence paragraph.

Day 15 – Sketch

Find something outside and sketch it. Your artwork doesn’t have to be “good” – but it must demonstrate effort. This shouldn’t take less than five minutes.  Take a photo of yourself holding your sketch and upload it.

Day 16 – Your Officials

Who is your mayor?  What is one thing he has done for the city? Who is your deputy mayor?  Where is city hall?

Day 17 – In the Shade

Find a shady spot outside and read a book there for at least ten minutes.  Take a selfie in your spot, with your book, and submit it.

Day 18 – Your Parks

Use Google Maps to help you pick a park or nature preserve. Write a one paragraph history of that place OR, if applicable, a one paragraph biography  of the person it is named after.

Day 19 – Read This

 Read the following quote and respond to it in a five to eight sentence paragraph:
 ‘We are what we pretend to be, so we must be careful about what we pretend to be.’

Day 20 – Surprise

Surprise me with your own act of creativity or whimsy – a hobby, a piece of art, an act of kindness, etc.  It can be anything.  Tell me about it/share a photo of it here, and tell me why you are proud of this thing.

Build a Great Ziggurat

The Great Ziggurat of Ur (Sumerian: 𒂍𒋼𒅎𒅍 or “Etemenniguru,” meaning “temple whose foundation creates aura”) is a Sumerian ziggurat – or step pyramid – built in the city of Ur in the 21st Century BCE – or about 4000 years ago.  Construction started circa 2050-2030 BC and was completed circa 2030-1980 BC

800px-Ancient_ziggurat_at_Ali_Air_Base_Iraq_2005
Partially reconstructed facade and the access staircase of the ziggurat. The actual remains of the Neo-Babylonian structure can be seen at the top.

The massive step pyramid measured 64 m (210 ft) in length, 45 m (148 ft) in width and over 30 m (98 ft) in height. The height measurement is only speculative, as just the foundations of the Sumerian ziggurat have survived. Like most ziggurats, the Great Ziggurat was made by stacking sun-baked mud-bricks and using additional mud to seal them together.  This construction technique is relatively effective in a drier climate over the short term, but has resulted in the ziggurat’s collapse over many millennia of rain.

Ziggurat_of_ur
Computer reconstruction of Ur-Nammu’s ziggurat.

urcity.gifThe ziggurat served as an administrative center for the city, and which was a shrine of the moon god Nanna, the patron deity of Ur.

The construction of the ziggurat was finished in the 21st century BCE by King Shulgi, who, in order to win the allegiance of cities, proclaimed himself a god. During his 48-year reign, the city of Ur grew to be the capital of a state controlling much of Mesopotamia.

 

godnanna2
The king of Ur is seated on his throne, bestowing power on governors who will rule beneath him. The god Nanna, god of the moon, who granted heavenly power to the king – and worshiped in the Great Ziggurat of Ur – is seen above in the form of a crescent moon.

Using supplies found in your classroom (and approved by your teacher) – build a scale model of the Great Ziggurat of Ur.  You should work in cooperation with your peers, in a group the size of your choosing.  Make sure it matches the approximate proportions of the Great Ziggurat – 64 m (210 ft) in length, 45 m (148 ft) in width, and 30 m (98 ft) in height.  Show your math – and be creative in following these directions to build the MOST impressive one in your class! 

After all, a impressive ziggurat will inspire your followers – and unimpressive one will result in a complete collapse of your society…

In Writing/For Discussion

Each group member must provide the dimensions of their model ziggurat in inches and answer the accompanying questions in paragraph form:

  1. What was the significance of the Ziggurat in Sumerian culture?
  2. Can you think of any structures that perform similar functions in modern America? Explain.
  3. Who built the most impressive ziggurat in your class?  What strategies did they follow to accomplish this?

Ziggurat of Ur

Ontario librarian creates online guide for teachers to find available Indigenous course content

Via the CBC, for all of those looking to include more indigenous content into their lesson plans, when the textbook publishers and the government appointed panels fail us:

A librarian at the Ontario Institute for Studies in Education (OISE) at the University of Toronto has compiled a list of Indigenous education content available.

The resource compilation is a response to the recent cancellation of Truth and Reconciliation curriculum writing sessions that were to build upon Ontario’s curriculum by infusing Indigenous knowledge and pedagogy across all subjects and grades.

Educators and librarians doing it for themselves – we owe it to the next generations to curate a more expansive definition of world literature and history!

 

Free Online, Open Source Textbook for Middle or High School – The United States: An Open Ended History

The United States: An Open Ended History is a free online history textbook adapted and expanded upon from open sources.  Its chapters are designed to address most state standards, splitting the difference between overarching themes, concise summary, and the kinds of vivid, personal details that make history memorable to the average student.  Please use and share freely – to supplement or replace what you have at hand.

One – A Not So-Distant Past: Native America (Until 1600)
  1. North America’s First People
  2. The Pristine Myth: How Native Americans Shaped Their World
  3. A Collision of Worlds: The Legacy of Columbus
Two – A New World: Colonial America (1600 – 1754)
  1. Jamestown: English Settlers in the Land of the Powhatan
  2. Massachusetts: Church and State in the Land of the Wampanoag
  3. An Overview of the English Colonies in America
  4. The Origins of Servitude and Slavery in Colonial America
Three – Common Sense and Independence: The Revolutionary Era (1754 – 1788)
  1. Join, or Die: The French and Indian War
  2. Agitation, Taxation, and Representation by Other Means
  3. The Shot Heard Round the World, Common Sense, and Independence
  4. The Revolutionary War: With a Little Help from our Friends
  5. A New Nation in Crisis: Shays Rebellion and the U.S. Under the Articles
  6. The Constitution: A Second Draft of American Democracy
Four – A More Perfect Union: The Early Republic (1788-1824)
  1. President Washington and the Origins of Party Politics
  2. Adams, Jefferson, and Competing Visions for the New Republic
  3. Foreign Adventures in the New Republic
  4. The Era of Good Feelings and Others Who Were Not So Lucky
Five – New Frontiers: Economic, Social, and Westward Expansion (1824-1850)
  1. Andrew Jackson, For and Against the Common Man
  2. I Will Not Retreat a Single Inch: Reformers Make Themselves Heard
  3. Manifest Destiny, Westward Expansion, and the Conquest of Mexico
Six – The Gathering Storm: Sectionalism and a Nation in Crisis (1850-1865)
  1. Sectionalism in the Fractured 1850s
  2. A Nation Divided Against Itself
  3. To Break Our Bonds of Affection: The Coming of the Civil War
  4. Gettysburg to Appomattox and Beyond: A New Birth of Freedom
Appendix – Student Activities

THIS UNIT WAS INDEPENDENTLY FINANCED BY OPENENDEDSOCIALSTUDIES.ORG.

If you value the free resources we offer, please consider making a modest contribution to keep this site going and growing.


Some Ideas for Teaching about the Philippines (and the Philippine-American War)

LESSON PLANS

“I have asked myself many times: Is the Filipino worth suffering, or even dying, for? Is he not a coward who would readily yield to any colonizer, be he foreign or homegrown? Is a Filipino more comfortable under an authoritarian leader because he does not want to be burdened with the freedom of choice? Is he unprepared, or worse, ill-suited for presidential or parliamentary democracy?
I have carefully weighed the virtues and the faults of the Filipino and I have come to the conclusion that he is worth dying for because he is the nation’s greatest untapped resource.” – Ninoy Aquino
  • Islands in a Friendly Sea: Some Basics of Filipino History and Culture (Free online text suited for middle or high school classroom use, guided reading questions, and suggested activities): Who are the Filipinos?  What is their history and culture?  How has it been shaped by island geography?  By contact with the outside world?
  • Manila at the Crossroads of World Trade (Free online text suited for middle or high school classroom use, guided reading questions, and suggested activities): For more than three centuries, Manila was one of the crown jewels of the Spanish Empire, sitting at the intersection of global trade between Asia, the Americas, and Europe.  How did this global trade shape the Philippines – and how did the Philippines shape global trade?
  • The Origins of the Philippine-American War (Free online text suited for middle or high school classroom use, guided reading questions, and suggested activities): How did the Filipinos gain independence from Spain, only to have it snatched away by their alleged ally, the United States?  How does this experience resonate in both Philippine and U.S. history?
  • The Brutality of the Philippine-American War (Free online text suited for middle or high school classroom use, guided reading questions, and suggested activities): Why was the Philippine-American War so violent?  Did this violence help or hinder the goals of each side?  Should there be rules that govern the conduct of war?
  • The Philippines in the American Empire (Free online text suited for middle or high school classroom use, guided reading questions, and suggested activities): After nearly 400 years, how did independence finally come to the Philippines?  Was the United States conquest of the Philippines an anomaly in its history, or was it business as usual?
  • “The White Man’s Burden”: Kipling’s Hymn to U.S. Imperialism (Free online text suited for middle or high school classroom use, guided reading questions, and suggested activities): Full text of this imperialist poem, as well as an answer in the form of an anti-imperialist parody.
  • Stereoscopic Visions of War and Empire (Free online text suited for middle or high school classroom use, guided reading questions, and suggested activities): This exhibit juxtaposes the visual message presented by the stereoscopic images with excerpts from the letters written by U.S. soldiers that were first published in local newspapers and later collected in the Anti-Imperialist League’s pamphlet, allowing us to get a glimpse of the Philippine-American War as it was presented to Americans at home, reading the news or entertaining friends in their parlors.
  • In The Trenches: Harper’s Weekly Covers the Philippine-American War (Free online text suited for middle or high school classroom use, guided reading questions, and suggested activities):  How did the American media cover the war in the Philippines?  An excerpt from “In The Trenches” by John F. Bass, originally published in Harper’s Weekly.
  • Ninoy and Marcos – “A Pact with the Devil is No Pact at All.” (Free online text suited for middle or high school classroom use, guided reading questions, and suggested activities):  Benigno “Ninoy” Aquino, Cory Aquino, and the People Power Revolution toppled the kleptocratic Marcos regime through nonviolence, answering with their lives the question, “Is the Filipino worth dying for?”

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Join the Neolithic Revolution Advertisement

The Neolithic Revolution – also known as the Agricultural Revolution – was the wide-scale transition of many human societies from a lifestyle of hunting and gathering to one of agriculture and settlement, making an increasingly larger population possible. These settled communities permitted humans to observe and experiment with growing plants. This new knowledge led to the domestication of plants.

The Neolithic Revolution involved far more than the adoption of a limited set of food-producing techniques. During the next millennia it would transform the small and mobile groups of hunter-gatherers that had hitherto dominated human pre-history into sedentary (non-nomadic) societies based in built-up villages and towns. These societies radically modified their natural environment by means of specialized food-crop cultivation, with activities such as irrigation and deforestation which allowed the production of surplus food. Other developments found very widely are the domestication of animals, pottery, polished stone tools, and rectangular houses.

These developments, sometimes called the Neolithic package, provided the basis for centralized administrations and political structures, hierarchical ideologies, writing, cities, specialization and division of labor, more trade, the development of non-portable art and architecture, and property ownership.

ACTIVITY – Join the Neolithic Revolution Advertisement

Create an advertisement urging human beings to settle down and join the Neolithic Revolution.  Your ad should be artistic, creative, and appealing, but should also communicate the key changes/benefits that an agriculturally-based lifestyle will bring to those who adopt it – using at least 3/4 of the vocab words found in your textbook.

You must also utilize at least two of the following – the seven most common techniques of persuasion used in advertising:

  • Testimonial – a story from someone, usually famous, who has used the product
  • Glittering Generalities – words that cannot really be measured, like “great”
  • Transfer – using this product will make you “cool” or “attractive”
  • Plain Folks – a common person who can understand and empathize with a listener’s concerns.
  • Bandwagon – everybody’s doing it, you’re being left behind
  • Name Calling – bashing the competition
  • Card Stacking – shows the product’s best features, tells half truths, omits potential problems.

Think of something like —

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